I would like to know when the elections for community moderators are. if you said you wanted emails will the site send you one? or would they say something here on the meta? if so how far in advance? also, who can be elected and who can vote?
StackExchange doesn't do yearly elections per say. Moderators are elected for as long as they are willing to do the position. Because of this, elections only happen if it's either decided we need another, one of them decides to step down, or one is found derelict or incompetent.
Our moderators are pretty efficient, so I don't see the site needing a fourth anytime soon. Since we just had elections at the end of 2015, I wouldn't expect another round to happen anytime soon. I suppose, one of them could get hit by a bus, or @goldilocks could be shot by a hunter, but one would hope not ;)
When an election does happen you'll get a notification through your account. It'll tell you when it's time for nominations, primaries, and the actual elections. There's a great post in the regular stackexchange meta that goes into a detailed explanation as to who can vote and who is eligible to run.